is the science that deals with the dating and studying of annual growth layers in wood.
Dendron = "tree" (Greek)
Chronology = "science deals with time and the assignment of dates to particular events."

Tree Ring
is a ring of wood indicating one year's growth, seen in the transverse section of stems and roots of woody plants growing in temperate climates; also called: annual ring.
A layer of wood cells produced by a tree or shrub in one year, usually consisting of thin-walled cells formed early in the growing season (called earlywood) and thicker-walled cells produced later in the growing season (called latewood). The beginning of earlywood formation and the end of the latewood formation form one annual ring, which usually extends around the entire circumference of the tree.

Tree Ring Chronology
is a series of measured tree-ring properties, such as tree-ring width or maximum latewood density, that has been converted to dimensionless indices through the process of standardization. A tree-ring chronology therefore represents departures of growth for any one year compared to average growth. For example, an index of 0.75 (or 75) for a given year indicates growth below normal(indicated by 1.00, or 100).

Master Chronology
is a tree ring chronology that is a composite of individual samples. Composite means the arithmetic average of component samples index values for each year of the entire time period range.

Skeleton Plot
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Increment Borer
is a hand-operated coring device for obtaining tree-ring samples.